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Pressure sensor lamp Flex PCB application

Pressure sensor lamp Flex PCB application
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Pressure sensor lamp Flex PCB application

  • Pressure sensor lamp Flex PCB application
    A flexible and low power telemetric sensing and monitoring system for chronic wound diagnostics
    Nasir MehmoodEmail author, Alex Hariz, Sue Templeton and Nicolas H Voelcker
    BioMedical Engineering OnLine201514:17
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s12938-015-0011-y© Mehmood et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
    Received: 1 September 2014Accepted: 9 February 2015Published: 1 March 2015
    Abstract lamp

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa−1, a fast response time of < 10 ms, high stability over >15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of < 1 mW. The combination of a microstructured polydimethylsiloxane dielectric and the high-mobility semiconducting polyisoindigobithiophene-siloxane in a monolithic transistor design enabled us to operate the devices in the subthreshold regime, where the capacitance change upon compression of the dielectric is strongly amplified. We demonstrate that our sensors can be used for non-invasive, high fidelity, continuous radial artery pulse wave monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular lamp medicine.

    Description: A simple flex sensor 2.2" in length. As the sensor is flexed, the resistance across the sensor increases. Patented technology by Spectra Symbol - they claim these sensors were used in the original Nintendo Power Glove. I love the Nintendo Power Glove. It’s so bad!

    The resistance of the flex sensor changes when the metal pads are on the outside of the bend (text on inside of bend).

    Connector is 0.1" spaced and bread board friendly. Check datasheet for full specifications lamp.

    Note: Please refrain from flexing or straining this sensor at the base. The usable range of the sensor can be flexed without a problem, but care should be taken to minimize flexing outside of the usable range. For best results, securely mount the base and bottom portion and only allow the actual flex sensor to flex.


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    Flexible pressure sensors are essential components in future mobile applications such as rollable touch displays, biomonitoring and electronic skin1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11. Most of these applications require high sensitivity in the low-pressure regime < 10 kPa, fast response time in the millisecond range, and low power consumption. Electronic skin also needs to mimic the sensitivity of human skin over a wide pressure range, with a simple monolithic pressure sensor design enabling cheap large area production. In biomonitoring, pressure sensors are used in continuous pulse and blood pressure recording during surgery or intensive care. Currently, intravascular catheters are used although the infection risk of this invasive method limits its use in newborns and high-risk patients. Therefore, the development of external continuous blood pressure monitoring methods such as arterial tonometry is a field of high research interest12. Moreover, analysis of the complete pulse pressure wave form has been shown to provide valuable information for diagnostics of cardiovascular diseases13,14,15,16. The high pressure sensitivity requirements have only recently been met by integrated CMOS devices, thus opening the way to a wider spread of arterial tonometry as a routine diagnostic tool17,18. Flexible and lightweight pressure sensors have the potential to take arterial tonometry even further as they would result in cheap, mobile monitoring devices, making long term diagnostics during normal every-day activities possible lamp.

    Non-healing chronic wounds, such as venous leg ulcers, can be monitored non-invasively by using modern sensing devices and wireless technologies. The development of such a wireless diagnostic tool may improve chronic wound management by providing evidence on efficacy of treatments being provided. This paper presents a low-power portable telemetric system for wound condition sensing and monitoring. The system aims at measuring and transmitting real-time information of wound-site temperature, sub-bandage pressure and moisture level from within the wound dressing.

    Commercially available non-invasive temperature, moisture, and pressure sensors are interfaced with a telemetry device on a flexible 0.15 mm thick printed circuit material to construct a light-weight, non-invasive, biocompatible, and low-power sensing device. The real-time data obtained is transmitted wirelessly to a portable receiver which displays the measured values. The performance of the whole telemetric sensing system is validated on a mannequin leg using commercial compression bandages and dressings. A number of trials on a healthy human volunteer are performed where treatment conditions were emulated using various compression bandage configurations.

    A reliable and repeatable performance of the system is achieved under compression bandage and with minimal discomfort to the volunteer. The system is capable of reporting instantaneous changes in bandage pressure, moisture level and local temperature at wound site with average measurement resolutions of 0.5 mmHg, 3.0% RH, and 0.2°C respectively. Effective range of data transmission is 4–5 m in an open environment.

    A flexible and non-invasive sensing system is developed to acquire and wirelessly transmit wound parameters from within a compression bandage and wound dressing worn on a human limb. Pre-clinical results on a healthy human subject suggest its clinical usability and value to health practitioners. However, further performance evaluations of the device on a wider population of healthy human subjects and on patients with chronic wounds are required to confirm its medial usefulness and to quantify its real impact on chronic wound management.


    Chronic wound monitoring Telemetric sensing Chronic wound management Wound diagnostic system

    Chronic wounds, such as venous leg ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers, are posing a financial threat to the healthcare systems in the world [1,2]. A current estimate shows the economic cost of woundcare activities in the world is distributed as 15-20% materials, 30–35% nursing time and more than 50% as hospitalization time [3]. The woundcare cost in Australia only is estimated at $ 2.5 billion per year with more than 4000 limb amputations [4]. A 2001 study indicated that chronic wounds were a major cause of morbidity, affecting more than 1% of UK population and with treatment cost of at least £1 billion [5]. During 2006–07, chronic wounds were affecting 3–6 million people in the USA with a total cost of treatment estimated at more than $3 billion annually [6,7]. In 2012, approximately 7 million people suffered from chronic wounds in the USA, and the cost for their treatment was estimated at almost $25 billion annually [8].

    On cold mornings, the TPMS light lamp may light up for a short period of time and then turn off. This usually is caused by slightly low tire pressure that falls below the warning threshold overnight, but returns to an acceptable level as the tires heat up. In the summer, tires can overinflate, also triggering your TPMS light. If you notice this happening, bring your car into Pep Boys for a free tire pressure check.

    TPMS is required by The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration on all vehicles produced after September 2007. Some earlier models may also come equipped with TPMS. Check your owner’s manual to be sure. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, TPMS is estimated to reduce the number of annual motor vehicle crash fatalities by about 120 and the annual number of injuries due to motor vehicle crashes by about 8,500, when all passenger vehicles are equipped with TPMS.

    The most effective and economical treatment of wounds is covering them with a suitable dressing or bandage in order to protect damaged skin from external effects such as microorganism attacks [9]. For certain chronic wounds such as venous leg ulcers, appropriate compression bandages are applied to increase the healing rate [10,11]. These bandages may be retention (low pressure), light support (medium pressure) or compression (high pressure) bandages. The method of applying compression bandages on the affected limb is very important as the efficacy and maintenance of sub-bandage pressure depends on it [12]. Compression bandages can produce a pressure up to 60 mmHg at the ankle (extra high pressure), while the recommended high pressure value is 40 mmHg at the ankle [10,12]. Depending on the applied pressure range and the type of bandage used, the sub-bandage pressure may vary significantly during the physical movement of the patient, thus affecting the healing rate [13]. In addition to compression bandages, healing rates may also be increased by managing moisture produced by the wound (exudate) through moisture-retentive dressings such as Anasept® (hydrogel) and Hydrocolloids [14,15] for wounds with low exudate and dressings such as Allevyn® (foam) or Melgisorb® (calcium alginate) for wounds with moderate to high exudate. In addition to moisture levels, the temperature and pH under the dressing may change as a result of an infection [16,17]. Unfortunately, these parameters associated with the dressings are not currently monitored in clinical practice. There is an opportunity for advanced sensor technologies to contribute to improved wound monitoring and lamp diagnostics.

    It can be tough to tell if the air in a tire is too low or too high just by looking at it. Luckily for us, most newer cars have a Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) that continuously monitors the pressure in your tires through sensors located in the tires (direct system) or the use of wheel speed and other vehicle sensors (indirect system). The information collected by the sensors is transmitted to an on-board processor that interprets the sensor signals and warns the driver when tire pressure is below the minimum acceptable level by illuminating a warning lamp.

    A highly accurate (0.2°C accuracy) RFID-based skin temperature monitoring system was devised by Matzeu et al. [18]. However, the system lacked proper clinical trials using wound dressings. Moser and Martin [19] presented a flexible platinum-based miniaturized temperature sensor to operate within 0–400°C range. For this device too, no testing on humans was performed. McColl et al. [20] developed an impedance sensor moisture monitoring system to be used with wound dressings. Following this, Ohmedics© developed a clinically-proven moisture monitoring device called WoundSense® [21]. However, this device is not designed to stay within the dressing for continuous moisture sensing. Khaburi et al. [22] reported a force sensors-based pressure-mapping bandage prototype to measure pressure at various points on a leg mannequin. A wearable sub-bandage pressure measurement system is reported by V. Casey et al. [23] for real-time pressure measurements with a wired connection between the flexible sensor and the display module. To the best of our knowledge, no device exists for continuous and non-invasive monitoring of sub-bandage pressure for wounds. However, miniaturised pressure sensors have been fabricated and used in other applications including intracranial pressure [24,25], intraocular pressure [26], spinal plates pressure [27] and for general in vivo applications [28-30]. In other reported literature, researchers have proposed integrated wound monitoring systems using wireless data transmission [31,32]. However, those devices have not been tested or utilised in a wound environment and their wireless transmission range was confined to a few millimetres, thus restricting the practical use of the devices.

    Where To Install Pressure Sensor Lighting?
    To answer the question ‘where shall I install pressure sensor lighting’ you must first ask what you expect to achieve with the lighting.

    Answer the questions below before deciding where to install pressure sensor lighting.

    Both overinflation and underinflation can cause premature treadwear and possible tire failure. Overinflation can result in decreased traction, premature wear, and the inability to absorb road impact. Overinflated tires will show premature wear in the center of the tread. On the other hand, underinflation will cause sluggish tire respose, decreased fuel economy, excessive heat buildup, and tire overload. An underinflated tire will show premature wear on both outside shoulders.

    The TPMS warning light will help warn you when your tire pressure is too low. Your TPMS has various illumination patterns that mean different things. Keep reading to find out what they mean.

    If you’re learning about tire pressure sensors for the first time, finding the TPMS indicator on your dashboard is simple. It’s a horseshoe-shaped light with an exclamation point in the center.

    Do you need pressure sensor lighting?
    Will motion sensor lighting be OK?
    What specific reasons do you need pressure sensor lighting for?
    Why pressure sensor lighting?

    In this paper, we demonstrate a flexible wireless telemetric system for continuous sensing and monitoring of the wound environment, proposed in our earlier review article [33]. Preliminary results indicate that the system is capable of measuring and transmitting real-time information on temperature, moisture, and sub-bandage pressure from under the bandage or within the wound dressing at programmable transmission intervals [34]. The selection of sensors and their calibration processes have been discussed in our recent article [35]. The sensing system is fabricated on a flexible printed circuit material, while the sensors are micro-sized and flexible, thus making the system minimally invasive to wounds and the human body. The receiver is portable with the capability to receive data accurately within a distance of 4–5 meters. The system has been tested on a human volunteer using various compression bandages and moisture-retentive dressings. The results from these trials confirm the clinical utility of this system in a wound environment.

    Methods and materials

    For chronic wound monitoring application, the diagnostic device is required to perform reliably in a delicate environment involving human skin and wound fluid. In addition to satisfy the essential criteria of flexibility, protection from wound chemicals, and bio-compatibility, the device needs to fulfil certain performance requirements as well, which sets the foundation for minimum measurement resolutions. For meaningful temperature measurements, the device must be able to detect changes in temperature of less than ± 0.5°C. The case with pressure and moisture is different. Although, the aim of compression bandages and stockings is to maintain a constant sub-bandage pressure at certain positions on limb, however, it may be anticipated that a ± 5 mmHg variation in bandage pressure would not have a significant impact on wound healing. Similarly, a ± 5% RH resolution could be expected for moisture measurements. The wireless device for this application does not need to transmit continuously as the wound conditions do not change abruptly. A complete packet of information transmitted twice an hour would be sufficient. All the user and medical requirements for the wound sensing system are listed in Table 1. The proposed sensing system satisfies all of the above mentioned medical and performance requirements as explained in the following sections.
    Table 1
    Requirement specifications for the developed chronic wound monitoring system
    Type/ category
    At least 01 sensor, 0.5°C resolution, miniature and flexible
    At least 01 sensor, 5% RH resolution, miniature and flexible
    At least 01 sensor, 5 mmHg resolution, miniature and flexible
    System size
    Small enough for placement within a compression bandage
    Power consumption
    Must be kept as low as possible for long-term operation
    Any suitable protocol e.g. Zigbee®, Bluetooth®, WiFi®
    Suitable to receive data in a clinical setup
    Within the safe exposure limits for human body
    2.4 GHz band to keep the components’ size smaller
    Should be kept high to save battery power, e.g. 10 minutes
    Must be flexible, bio-compatible, and non-invasive
    Response time
    Less than or equal to a second
    Selection and calibration of sensors
    For wound monitoring application, the sensors and their assemblies need to be biocompatible and minimally invasive to the human body, as the sensors would be placed within a wound dressing or compression bandage over a human limb [36]. Having metallic inflexible structures of sensors and circuit components would create discomfort to the patients. It has been revealed through online surveys that the majority of available sensors do not qualify for this particular application because of their large size, invasive structure, complex principle of measurement, and the need for additional on-board circuit components for operation. Table 2 below lists a few such sensors along with the reasons of their unsuitability for wound diagnostics.
    Table 2
    A partial list of commercially available temperature, pressure and moisture sensors
    Sensor type
    Model no.
    Dimensions (mm)
    Reasons of unsuitability
    Honeywell® 170PC
    21.5 × 21.5 × 34.3*
    Invasive to human body due to large size. Fluid flow is required to create pressure.
    Honeywell® 19C015A7
    19.0 × 35.6#
    Invasive to human body due to metallic port and large size.
    Measurement Specialities™ FC22
    34.0 × 16.8#
    Invasive to human body due to large metallic structure.
    Measurement Specialities™ MS5540C
    6.4 × 6.4 × 3.0*
    Invasive to human body due to hard metallic structure.
    Interlink Electronics FSR406
    38 × 38 × 0.5
    Flexible, non-invasive, and bendable structure. Works on the principle of impedance change with applied pressure.
    Honeywell® HIH403X/503X Series
    8.65 × 4.20 × 3.0*
    Less invasive to human body due to small size. Air samples are required for moisture measurement.
    Silicon Laboratories Inc. Si7005
    4.0 × 4.0 × 1.5*
    Less invasive to human body due to small size. Air samples are required for moisture measurement. Needs additional on-board circuits to operate.
    TDK Corporation CHS-SS Series
    25 × 10 × 5.0*
    Invasive to human body due to relatively large size. Air samples are required for moisture measurement.
    Multicomp HCZ-D5
    10 × 5.0 × 0.5*
    Miniature size, comparatively less invasive. Works on the principle of impedance change with the moisture level.
    Texas Instruments LM62
    3.0 × 1.4 × 1.1*
    Suitable for placement within the dressing. Accuracy ±3°C.
    Texas Instruments LM35DM
    6.5 × 5.4 × 2.0*
    Dimensions are not suitable for placement within the dressing. Accuracy ±0.5°C.
    Texas Instruments LM94021
    2.15 × 2.4 × 1.1*
    Dimensions suitable for placement within the wound dressing. Accuracy ±1.5°C. Gain can be controlled digitally.
    *Length x width x height in mm, # diameter x length in mm.

    These sensors are listed based on their available lamp minimum size.

    Sensors need to be carefully selected, calibrated and characterized for the intended environment in order to capture reliable information. Any error in the sensor’s measurement would spread through the whole system and in some scenarios might get amplified. This would create ambiguities and false diagnosis by clinicians and health practitioners. For wound-site temperature monitoring, we chose LM94021B (Texas Instruments, USA) temperature sensor for its small size and reliable performance. This ultra-low power sensor typically consumes just 9 μA current at a rated 5.0 V supply voltage. With a size of 2.15 mm × 2.40 mm × 1.1 mm (L x W x H) and a nominal accuracy of ±1.5°C in the temperature range 20–40°C [37], the sensor is quite suitable for our wound monitoring system.

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    Instructables user DIYHacksAndHowTos put together this simple pressure plate from cardboard and aluminum foil for a haunted house, but we're intrigued by the home automation prospects. You could easily use it to turn lights or appliances on or off when you enter a room, or for anything else you want automated.
    Yea. They're doing the same thing in Afghanistan to me and my buddies except the leads are to an explosive charge and not a lamp.

    There are two different types of systems being used today: Direct TPMS and Indirect TPMS.

    Direct TPMS uses a sensor mounted in the wheel to measure air pressure in each tire. When air pressure drops 25% below the manufacturer’s recommended level, the sensor transmits that information to your car’s computer system and triggers your dashboard indicator light.

    Indirect TPMS works with your car’s Antilock Braking System’s (ABS) wheel speed sensors. If a tire’s pressure is low, it will roll at a different wheel speed than the other tires. This information is detected by your car’s computer system, which triggers the dashboard indicator light.


    TPMS notifies you when your vehicle’s tire pressure is low or is going flat. By helping you maintain proper tire pressure, TPMS can increase your safety on the road by improving your vehicle’s handling, decreasing tire wear, reducing braking distance and lamp bettering fuel economy.

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    Sense your way into Open Source Hardware glory with Adafruit's sensor category! Here you can find everything you need to start measuring temperature, motion, force, flow, and more. Check out the Sensor Pack 900 for your beginner sensor needs or the Soil Temperature/Moisture Sensor for more advanced projects. With a wide and growing range of sensors, Adafruit's Sensors category is the best place for all your needs!

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    Adafruit Ultimate GPS Breakout - 66 channel w/10 Hz updates - Version 3
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    Photo cell (CdS photoresistor)
    Photo cell (CdS photoresistor)
    PRODUCT ID: 161
    CdS cells are little light sensors. As the squiggly face is exposed to more light, the resistance goes down. When its light, the resistance is about 5-10KΩ, when dark it goes up to 200KΩ. To use, connect one side of the photo cell (either one, its symmetric) to power (for example 5V) and the other side to your microcontroller's analog input pin. Then connect a 10K pull-down resistor from that analog pin to ground. The voltage on...
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    This large (30mm diameter) piezo element is nicely enclosed with mounting holes so you can attach easily. Piezo elements convert vibration to voltage or voltage to vibration. That means you can use this as a buzzer for making beeps, tones and alerts AND you can use it as a sensor, to detect fast movements like knocks. You can also use it under a drum pad to make a drum/crash sensor It's rated for up to 12Vpp use but you can also use 3 or 5V...
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    PRODUCT ID: 2857
    Sensiron Temperature/Humidity sensors are some of the finest & highest-accuracy devices you can get. And, finally we have some that have a true I2C interface for easy reading. The SHT31-D sensor has an excellent ±2% relative humidity and ±0.3°C accuracy for most uses. We now use the version with a PTFE filter, it'll stay clean while still allowing humidity measurements to lamp work Unlike earlier SHT sensors,...
    Electret Microphone Amplifier - MAX9814 with Auto Gain Control
    Electret Microphone Amplifier - MAX9814 with Auto Gain Control
    PRODUCT ID: 1713
    Add an ear to your project with this well-designed electret microphone amplifier with AGC. This fully assembled and tested board comes with a 20-20KHz electret microphone soldered on lamp. For the amplification, we use the Maxim MAX9814, a specialty chip that is designed for amplifying electret microphones in situations where the loudness of the audio isn't predictable. This fancy microphone amplifier module is a step above the rest, with built...
    Adafruit BMP280 I2C or SPI Barometric Pressure & Altitude Sensor
    Adafruit BMP280 I2C or SPI Barometric Pressure & Altitude Sensor
    PRODUCT ID: 2651
    Bosch has stepped up their game with their new BMP280 sensor, an environmental sensor with temperature, barometric pressure that is the next generation upgrade to the BMP085/BMP180/BMP183. This sensor is great for all sorts of weather sensing and can even be used in both I2C and SPI! This precision sensor from Bosch is the best low-cost, precision sensing solution for measuring barometric pressure with ±1 hPa absolute accuraccy, and...

    For moisture sensing, Honeywell HIH4030 piezo-electric and Multicomp’s HCZ-D5 piezo-resistive moisture sensors were calibrated, characterized, and used with a prototype wireless sensing system. The piezo-resistive sensor (HCZ-D5) was found the most suitable sensor for this application because of its small size (10 mm × 5 mm × 0.5 mm). The sensor was calibrated and characterized using a dedicated experimental setup. An interface circuit was also designed to properly operate the moisture sensor.

    The computer controlled tire warning system—also known as the tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS)—uses several different methods to track the tire pressure. Some use the anti-lock brake sensors (a deflating tire will turn faster than a properly inflated tire and therefore trigger the light). Some systems use sensors in the wheel wells that carefully track the diameter of the tire (a low tire will have a smaller diameter than a properly inflated tire). Other systems use pressure sensors inside the tire itself. When the tire pressure falls below a certain point, the sensor will send a signal to a transducer, which alerts the tire warning system and illuminates the lamp light lamp.

    For sub-bandage pressure measurement, we used the Interlink Electronics’ FSR406 piezo-resistive pressure sensor with a square sensing area of 38 mm × 38 mm. This sensor is non-invasive, flexible and is only 0.5 mm in thickness. The pressure sensor was calibrated using a clinical-grade pressure meter HPM-KH-01 for validation of pressure measurements up to 40 mmHg which is regarded as the desired value for high sub-bandage pressure [12]. An interface circuit was also designed to properly operate the pressure sensor. A commercial compression bandage system (Coban™ 2) was used to create pressure over the sensor placed on a mannequin leg.

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